A glossary of over 200+ MVNO Abbreviations & terms to help you understand the (Mobile) Telecom World a bit better.

  • 3GPP - 3rd Generation Partnership Project

    3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is an umbrella term for a number of standards organizations which develop protocols for mobile telecommunications. Its best known work is the development and maintenance of: GSM and related 2G and 2.5G standards, including GPRS and EDGE.

  • 5G DDNMF - Direct Discovery Name Management Function

    Direct Discovery Name Management Function (5G DDNMF) is the logical function handling network related actions required for dynamic 5G ProSe Direct Discovery.

  • 5G-EIR - 5G-Equipment Identity Register

    5G-Equipment Identity Register (5G-EIR) enables authentication of devices in the network. Protects networks and revenues against the use of stolen and unauthorized devices.

  • A-GPS - Assisted GPS

    Assisted GPS (A-GPS) is a system which is especially useful when the receiver is in a location where it is difficult for the satellite signals to penetrate.

  • AAnF - AKMA Anchor Function

    AKMA Anchor Function (AAnF) is the anchor function in the HPLMN that generates the key material to be used between the UE and the AF and maintains UE AKMA contexts.

  • ADRF - Analytical Data Repository Function

    Analytical Data Repository Function (ADRF) stores and retrieves analytics generated by NWDAFs and other collected data.

  • AES - Advanced encryption standard

    Advanced encryption standard (AES) is the standard for data encryption based on a public/private key scheme.

  • AKMA - Authentication and Key Management for Applications

    Authentication and Key Management for Applications (AKMA) is similar to the Generic Bootstrapping Architecture (GBA) in earlier generations, this function leverages an operator authentication infrastructure in order to secure the communication between the UE and an Application Function (AF).

  • AMF - Access and Mobility Management Function

    Access and Mobility Management Function (AMF) performs most of the functions that the MME performs in a 4G network.

  • AMQP - Advanced Message Queuing Protocol

    The Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) is an open standard application layer protocol for communication middleware for messaging between applications or organizations.

  • ANI - Automatic Number Identification

    Automatic Number Identification (ANI) Is a telephony service (for both Mobile and Fixed) that allows the called party (receiver of a phone call) to capture and display the phone number of calling party (the phone that originated the call). It is mainly in place for billing purposes.

  • AnLF - Analytical Logical Function

    Analytical Logical Function (AnLF) is responsible for collecting the analytical request and sending the response to the consumer. AnLF requires the model endpoints, which is provided by the MTLF (Model Training Logical Function).

  • API - Application Programming Interface

    Application Programming Interface (API) is a set of definitions and protocols to build and integrate application software. There are four different types of APIs commonly used in web services: public, partner, private and composite.

  • ARP - Address Resolution Protocol

    Address Resolution Protocol (APR) is a communication protocol for converting an IP address.

  • ARPU - Average Revenue Per Unit

    Average Revenue Per Unit (ARPU) is an indicator of the profitability of a product based on the amount of money that is generated from each of its users or subscribers. It is a particularly useful measurement for companies in the telecommunications and media industries, which rely on subscribers or users. ARPU is usually calculated as total revenue divided by the number of units, users, or subscribers. It is often referred to as average revenue per user. Mobile phone service providers may even refer to it as average revenue per SIM card especially in IOT. In the mobile phone industry, the revenue included in ARPU includes not only the monthly billings to subscribers but the revenue generated by incoming calls which are payable under the regulatory interconnection system.

  • AUC - AUthentication Center

    AUthentication Center (AUC) is a function to authenticate each SIM card that attempts to connect to the gsm core network. The AUC is associated with the HLR in a GSM or UMTS network. Simply said it provides authentication parameters for the authentication process such as authentication triplets in GSM or authentication vectors within UMTS.

  • AUSF - Authentication Server Function

    Authentication Server Function (AUSF0 performs the authentication function of 4G HSS.

  • AWS - Amazon Web Services

    Amazon Web Services (AWS) is a set of remote computing services that work together to build a cloud computing platform.

  • BAN - Body Area Network

    Body Area Network (BAN) is a wearable computing device wireless network.

  • BLE - Blue Tooth Low Energy

    Blue Tooth Low Energy (BLE) is a wireless personal area network geared towards low power devices.

  • BSC - Base Station controller

    Base Station controller (BSC) is a telecommunication network component which is part of the Base Station Subsystem andresponsible for the control and monitoring of one or more Base Transceiver Stations (BTS) and provides the interface between the cell sites and the Mobile Switching Center (MSC).

  • BSS - Business Support Systems

    Business support systems (BSS) are the components that a telecommunications service provider (or telco) uses to run its business operations towards customers. See: What is a Business Support System (BSS)

  • BTS - Base Transceiver Stations

    Base Transceiver Stations (BTS) is a type of transmitter called a fixed radio transmitter. It sends and receives wireless signals to mobile devices. Then it converts these signals to digital signals and sends them to a mobile network. It is normally controlled by a Base Station Controller (BSC).

  • CBCF - Cell Broadcast Center Function

    Cell Broadcast Center Function (CBCF) supports public warning system functionality.

  • CCS - Convergent Charging System Function.

    Convergent Charging System Function (CCS) provides account management, rating and charging functions.

  • CCXML - Call Control eXtensible Markup Language

    Call Control eXtensible Markup Language (CCXML), is an XML-based language that controls the setup, monitoring, and tear down of phone calls. CCXML allows you to use the strength of Web platforms and technologies, to intelligently control calls on and off the telephone network. CCXML is a markup language that describes call control and is asynchronous event-based, just as VXML is a markup language that describes voice dialogs which is synchronous.

  • CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access

    Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is a sort of multiplexing that facilitates various signals to occupy a single transmission channel. It optimizes the use of available bandwidth. A multiple access strategy that uses direct sequence spread spectrum to communicate.

  • CDR - Call Detail Record

    Call Detail Record (CDR) is a record with captured information on calls made on telephone systems, including who made the call (name and number), who was called (name if available, and number), the date and time the call was made, the duration of the call, and typically dozens of usage and diagnostic information elements. they are also called Usage Detail Record (UDR). They are also used for the charging, rating and billing and are sometimes called Charging Date Record.

  • CDRX - Continuous Reception

    Continuous Reception (CDRX) is a signal that is constantly active and ready to receive.

  • CHF - Charging Function

    Charging Function (CHF) allows charging services to be offered to authorized network functions

  • CoAP - Constrained Application Protocol

    Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is a web transfer protocol designed for use with constrained nodes and networks in the Internet of Things.

  • CSCF - Call Session Control Function

    Call Session Control Function (CSCF) provides the central control function in the IMS Core Network to set up, establish, modify, and tear down multimedia sessions

  • CSS - Chirp Spreas Spectrum

    Chirp spread spectrum (CSS) is a spread spectrum technique that uses wideband linear frequency modu­lated chirp pulses to encode information.

  • DAC - Digital to Analog Decoder

    Digital to Analog Decoder (DAC) is a device to convert digital data to analog data.

  • DCB - Direct Carrier Billing

    Direct Carrier Billing (DCB) also referred to as Direct Operator Billing (DOB), is an electronic payment method that eases the online payment process for mobile subscribers all around the world. It is a popular billing option especially in developing countries, where the usage of a debit or a credit card is not widely adopted for the purchase of online subscriptions or services. It is available to anyone who has a mobile phone and a subscription to a mobile operator.

  • DCCF - Data Collection Coordination Function

    Data Collection Coordination Function (DCCF) Multiple NWDAFs may need the same raw data (the input to the NWDAF) and multiple network functions may need the same analytics data (the output of the NWDAF). To avoid duplicate requests for the same data the DCCF function coordinates these interactions

  • DHCP - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

    Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a management protocol that governs the assignment of internet protocol (IP) addresses.

  • DN - Data Network

    Data Network (DN) is for example Internet access or 3rd party services.

  • DOB - Direct Operator Billing

    Direct Operator Billing (DOB) also referred to as Direct Carrier Billing (DCB), is an electronic payment method that eases the online payment process for mobile subscribers all around the world. It is a popular billing option especially in developing countries, where the usage of a debit or a credit card is not widely adopted for the purchase of online subscriptions or services. It is available to anyone who has a mobile phone and a subscription to a mobile operator.

  • DPI - Deep Packet Inspection

    Deep Packet Inspection (DPI), also known as packet sniffing, is a method of examining the content of data packets as they pass by a checkpoint on the network. DPI is a critical element of 4G/5G wireless networks as it is mandatory for application awareness and flow prioritization for proper service delivery and high quality of experience. It is also used in many security and network management applications, such as those that can detect and block access to unofficial websites, spam, or malicious apps.

  • DRA - Diameter Routing Agent

    Diameter Routing Agent (DRA) is a functional element in a 3G or 4G (such as LTE) network that provides real-time routing capabilities to ensure that messages are routed among the correct elements in a network. The DRA enables Policy and Charging Rules Function (PCRF) discovery and selection as part of the PCC architecture.

  • DRX - Discontinuous Reception

    Discontinuous Reception (DRX) is a regular repetition of “sleep mode and wake up mode”.

  • DTLS - Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS)

    Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) establishes end-to-end AES encryption and authentication for security. As a consequence, all sensor and location data submitted to the database is kept private and secure. DTLS is a cutting-edge security protocol for the Internet.

  • DTMF - Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency

    Dual tone multi-frequency (DTMF) is the sounds or tones generated by a telephone when the numbers are pressed. These tones are transmitted with the voice channel. DTMF is used to control automated equipment and signal user intent, such as the number they wish to dial.

  • EASDF - Edge Application Server Discovery Function

    Edge Application Server Discovery Function (EASDF) registers to the NRF for EASDF discovery and selection. Handles the DNS messages according to the instructions from the SMF, exchanges DNS messages from the UE. Forwards DNS messages to C-DNS or L-DNS for DNS Queries.

  • EDGE - Enhanced Data Rates for GSM

    Enhanced Data Rates for GSM (EDGE) is an enhanced version of GSM and offers high-speed 3G built on GSM. It is a type of data system used on the GSM network used to allow improved data transmission rates. It can transmit three times more bits than GPRR in the same length of time

  • Enet - Ethernet

    Ethernet (Enet) links wired LAN devices, allowing them to interact.

  • eSIM - embedded Subscriber Identity Module

    embedded Subscriber Identity Module (eSIM) is the same as a regular Subscriber Identity Module (SIM), except it comes permanently embedded in the smartphone and is an industry-standard digital SIM. It replaces the need for a physical SIM card and a SIM card slot on the device. Users can remove or swap between different eSIM-based networks with more ease.

  • FDX - Full Duplex

    Full Duplex (FDX) is concurrent two-way communication.

  • FMC - Fixed Mobile Convergence

    Fixed Mobile Convergence (FMC) allows fixed and mobile telecommunication networks to interwork for convergent and full service operation. In other words seamless connectivity between fixed and wireless telecommunications networks. The FMC technology provides users with diverse quality services including communications, information and entertainment, independent of the terminal, network, application and location.

  • FOTA - Firmware-Over-The-Air

    Firmware-Over-The-Air (FOTA) is used after product delivery, manufacturers can use mobile technology to wirelessly correct defects or remotely install new software, features, and services on mobile devices.

  • GCP - Google Cloud

    Google Cloud (GCP) is a collection of Google’s public cloud computing services.

  • GeoF - Geofence

    Geofence (GeoF) is a virtual boundary that is imposed to a real space

  • GGSN - Gateway GPRS Support Node

    Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) is a main component of the GPRS network. The GGSN is responsible for the interworking between the GPRS network and external packet switched networks, like the Internet and X.25 networks. The GGSN, sometimes known as a wireless router, works in tandem with the Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) to keep mobile users connected to the Internet and IP-based applications.

  • GMLC - Gateway Mobile Location Centre

    Gateway Mobile Location Centre (GMLC) provides functionality required to support location-based services (LBS). The GMLC is the first node an external LBS client accesses in a PLMN. AFs and NFs may access GMLC directly or via the NEF.

  • GNSS - Global Navigation Satellite System

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a satellite navigation system that provides autono­mous geospatial location with worldwide coverage. A device having GNSS access ensures that tech­nologies have constant accuracy, redundancy, and availability. If one satellite’s link fails, another may be established in seconds.

  • GPRS - General Packet Radio Service

    General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is defined as a mobile communications standard that operates on 2G and 3G cellular networks to enable moderately high-speed data transfers using packet-based technologies.

  • GPRS - General Packet Radio

    General Packet Radio (GPRS) is a wireless standard for 2G and 3G cellular networks that supports data speeds ranging from 56 to 114 kbps.

  • GPS - Global Positioning System

    Global Positioning System (GSP) is a system by which signals are sent from satellites to a special device, used to show the position of a person or thing on the surface of the earth very accurately.

  • GSM - Global System for Mobiles

    Global System for Mobiles (GSM) is a standard that specifies how 2G (second generation) cellular networks operate. GSM was a significant improvement over the first generation of cellular networks and represented a transition from analog to digital telecommunications.

  • Gtag - Geotagging

    Geotagging (Gtag) is the process of assigning a location to a device.

  • GTP - GPRS Tunnelling Protocol

    GPRS Tunnelling Protocol (GTP) is a group of IP-based communications protocols used to carry General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) within GSM, UMTS, LTE and 5G networks. GTP allows mobile subscribers to use their phones (user equipment) to maintain a connection to a Packet Data Network (PDN) for internet access while on the move. GTP uses tunnels to allow two GPRS support nodes (GGSNs) to communicate over a GTP-based interface and to separate traffic into different communication flows.

  • GUI - Graphical user interface

    Graphical User Interface (GUI) is a an interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices using graphical icons and audible indicators.

  • HLR - Home Location Register

    Home Location Register (HLR) is a database that contains data regarding authorized subscribers using a global system for mobile communication (GSM) core network. The home location register stores information ranging from phone numbers to current location of the subscriber. The HLR is considered the most important database, as it stores permanent data about subscribers, including a subscriber’s service profile, location information, and activity status.

  • HMI - Human Machine Interface

    Human Machine Interface (HMI) are devices and software that enable a user to operate a piece of equipment.

  • HSS - Home Subscriber Server

    Home Subscriber Server (HSS) is the main subscriber database used within the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) which provides details of the subscribers to other entities within the network. The IMS enables users to be granted or refused access to other services dependent on their status. Home Subscriber Server (HSS) is the evolution of the Home Location Register (HLR) for the 4G networks.

  • HTTP - HyperText Transfer Protocol

    Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems that allows users to communicate data on the World Wide Web.

  • I-NEF - Intermediate Network Exposure Function

    Intermediate Network Exposure Function (I-NEF) provides a mechanism for securely exposing services and features of the 5G core.

  • IAAS - Infrastructure as a service

    Infrastructure as a service (IAAS) is an IT capacity on-demand business model.

  • iB - iBeacon

    iBeacon (iB) is a network transmitter that communicates with sys­tems through Bluetooth low energy.


    Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is an internet standards body in charge of the technical specifica­tions that comprise the Internet protocol suite.

  • IIOT - Industrial IOT

    The use of the Internet of Things in an industrial setting. The Industrial Internet of Things.

  • IMS - IP Multimedia Subsystem

    IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is a standards-based architectural framework for delivering multimedia communications services such as voice, video and text messaging over IP networks. IMS is the architecture that works with 4G or 5G mobile core networks to deliver voice calls, messages and other potential real-time services.

  • IN - Intelligent Network

    Intelligent Network (IN) is a network that provides specific technical capabilities or services outside the conventional network standard spectrum. This term is often linked with telecom networks, as recent innovation has expanded telecom’s capabilities beyond its original primary function of facilitating phone calls.

  • IOE - Internet of Everything

    Internet of Everything (IoE) is a phrase used to represent a hypothetical future in which machine-to-machine connections are practically ubiquitous, covering people, structures, vehicles, systems, and processes. Despite the name, it does not require a global web/internet connection.

  • IOMT - Internet of Medical Things

    Internet of Things applications in medical care, gadgets, and infrastructure.

  • IOT - Internet of Things

    Internet of Things (IoT) describes the network of physical objects—“things”—that are embedded with sensors, software, and other technologies for the purpose of connecting and exchanging data with other devices and systems over the internet. It is a technology that allows us to add a device to an inert object (for example: vehicles, plant electronic systems, roofs, lighting, etc.) that can measure environmental parameters, generate associated data and transmit them through a communications network.

  • IP - Internet Protocol

    Internet Protocol (IP) is the set of rules governing the format of data sent via the internet or local network. In essence, IP addresses are the identifier that allows information to be sent between devices on a network: they contain location information and make devices accessible for communication.

  • IPv4 - Internet Protocol 4

    Internet Protocol 4 (IPv4) is a variant of IP in which addresses are made up of 32 bits.

  • IPv6 - Internet Protocol 6

    Internet Protocol 6 (Ipv6) is a variant of IP in which addresses are made up of 128 bits .

  • IrD - Infra Red Distance Sensor

    Infra Red Distance Sensor (IrD) is Infrared technology used to calculate distance from a target.

  • iSIM - integrated Subscriber Identity Module

    Integrated SIM (iSIM) refers to an embedded SIM that is built into a device’s system-on-chip, making it effectively a hardware-based security module. As it is built into the device’s hardware, the iSIM offers the same capabilities as a conventional SIM card or an eSIM while being even more secure. It is frequently used in Internet of Things (IoT) devices, where security is a top priority.

  • ISM - Industrial Scientific and Medical band

    Industrial Scientific and Medical band (ISM) is an unlicensed portion of the radio frequency spectrum used for general data transmission.

  • ITU - International Telecoms Union

    International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is a United Nations specialized institution in charge of numerous issues including information and communi­cation technology.

  • IVR - Interactive Voice Response

    Interactive Voice Response (IVR), is an automated telephone system that combines pre-recorded messages or text-to-speech technology with a dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF) interface to engage callers, allowing them to provide and access information without a live agent.

  • JSON - Java Script Notation

    Java Script Notation (JSON) is used as a lightweight alternative to XML for data organization.

  • LAN - Local Area Network

    A local area network (LAN) is a collection of computers and related devices that share a common communications line or wireless link to a server.

  • LB - Load Balancer

    Load Balancer (LB) is a network function to distribute network traffic across multiple servers, providing improved scaling and network resiliance. Load Balancers are ususally deployed in front of a cluster of application or SIP servers, distributing traffic.

  • LI - Lawful Interception

    Lawful Interception (LI) refers to the facilities in telecommunications and telephone networks that allow law enforcement agencies with court orders or other legal authorization to selectively wiretap individual subscribers. Most countries require licensed telecommunications operators to provide their networks with Legal Interception gateways and nodes for the interception of communications.

  • LiFi - Light Fidelity

    Light Fidelity (LiFi) is a wireless communication method that communicates by visible light.

  • LMF - Location Management Function

    Location Management Function (LMF) supports location-based services (LBS) for a UE.

  • LoRa - Long Range

    Long Range (LoRa) is a physical proprietary radio communication technique. It is based on spread spectrum modulation techniques derived from chirp spread spectrum technology. It encodes information on radio waves using chirp pulses – similar to the way dolphins and bats communicate! LoRa modulated transmission is robust against disturbances and can be received across great distances.

  • LTE - Long Term Evolution

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is sometimes referred to as 4G LTE. It’s a standard for wireless data transmission that allows you to download your favorite music, websites, and video really fast—much faster than you could with the previous technology, 3G. Despite frequent confusion, 4G and LTE networks are not the same. LTE came out before 4G to offer a slightly better speed and performance than its predecessor, 3G. Later, LTE-A emerged and delivered an even higher performance, which is almost as good as the real. LTE offers speeds of up to 100Mbps, while 5G can deliver speeds of up to 1Gbps. 5G vs LTE Coverage: LTE has widespread coverage, but 5G is still in the early stages of deployment. LTE vs 5G Capacity: LTE can support up to 1000 devices per cell, while 5G can support up to 10,000 devices per cell.

  • LTE-M - LTE-Machine Type Communication

    LTE-Machine Type Communication (LTE-M) is the low power wide area technology standard published by 3GPP in the Release 13 specification. It specifically refers to LTE CatM1, suitable for the IoT (long term batttery life). LTE-M is a low power wide area technology which supports IoT through lower device complexity and provides extended coverage, while allowing the reuse of the LTE installed base. 3GPP has agreed that the NB-IoT and LTE-M technologies will continue evolving as part of the 5G specifications.

  • LWPA - Low Power Wide Area Network

    Low Power Wide Area Network (LWPA) is network designed primarily for M2M communications, with long-range and low-power usage.

  • M2M - Machine to Machine

    Machine to Machine (M2M) is a network that allows linked devices to interact with one another.

  • MAC - Media Access Control

    Media Access Control (MAC) is one of two sublayers of a network that together make up the data link layer.

  • MB-SMF - Multicast Broadcast Session Management Function

    Multicast Broadcast Session Management Function (MB-SMF) handles MBS session management (including QoS control), configures the MB-UPF for multicast and broadcast data transport and allocates/de-allocates TMGIs

  • MB-UPF - Multicast–Broadcast User Plane Function

    Multicast–Broadcast User Plane Function (MB-UPF) handles packet filtering of incoming downlink packets for multicast and broadcast flows. QoS enforcement (MFBR) and interactions with MB-SMF for receiving multicast and broadcast data.

  • MBSF - Multicast/Broadcast Service Function

    Multicast/Broadcast Service Function (MBSF) performs service level functionality and interworking with MBMS. Interacting with AF and MB-SMF for MBS session operations, determination of transport parameters, and session transport.

  • MBSTF - Multicast/Broadcast Service Transport Function

    Multicast/Broadcast Service Transport Function Functions (MBSTF) is a media anchor for MBS data traffic. Sources IP Multicast and generic packet transport functionalities available to any IP multicast enabled application

  • Mbus - Modbus

    ModBus (Mbus) is an open, non-proprietary communications protocol that allows machines to speak with one another.

  • Mesh - Mesh Network

    Mesh Network (Mesh) is a network architecture in which a device sends data while also acting as a relay for other nodes.

  • MFAF - Messaging Framework Adaptor Function

    Messaging Framework Adaptor Function (MFAF) is the messaging framework in which the analytics or event notifications (carrying raw data for the NWDAF to process) can be distributed around the network. Its operation is not standardized by the 3GPP.

  • MME - Mobility Management Entity

    Mobility Management Entity (MME) is a key component of the standards-defined Evolved Pack Core (EPC) for LTE. It provides mobility session management for the LTE network and supports subscriber authentication, roaming and handovers to other networks.

  • MMS - Multimedia Messaging Service

    Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) is a standard way to send messages that include multimedia content to and from a mobile phone over a cellular network.

  • MMSC - Multimedia Messaging Service Centre

    Multimedia Messaging Service Centre (MMSC) provides a store and forward facility for multimedia messages sent across a mobile network.

  • MNO - Mobile Network Operator

    Mobile Network Operator (MNO) is a telecoms entity that provides wireless voice and data services to mobile phone subscribers. See also MVNE, MVNA and MVNO differences explained in a simple way

  • MNP - Mobile Number Portability

    Mobile number portability (MNP) is a service that allows a cellphone or smartphone customer to change telecom carrier and keep the same phone number. MNP works by transferring a customer’s existing phone number to the new provider, while the customer’s existing phone service is terminated with the old provider. This eliminates the hassle of having to update friends, family, and colleagues with a new phone number when switching providers. There are three basic types of number portability: operator, location, and service portability.

  • MQTT - Message Queuing Telemetry

    Message Queuing Telemetry (MQTT) is a lightweight messaging system based on the TCP/IP protocol suite.

  • MSC - Mobile Switching Center

    Mobile Switching Center (MSC) is a core part of the GSM/CDMA network system. It acts as a control center of a Network Switching Subsystem (NSS). The MSC connects calls between subscribers by switching the digital voice packets between network paths.

  • MSISDN - Mobile Station International Subscriber Directory Number.

    Mobile Station International Subscriber Directory Number (MSISDN) is the unique number that identifies a mobile subscriber. The MSISDN is the mobile subscriber’s phone number including the international country code. The maximum length of a MSISDN is 15 digits.

  • MTLF - Model Training Logical Function

    Model Training Logical Function (MTLF) provides the by the AnLF required the model endpoints. The MTLF trains and deploys the model inference microservice.

  • MTP - Message Transfer Part

    Message Transfer Part (MTP) is part of the Signaling System 7 (SS7) used for communication in Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTN). MTP is responsible for reliable, unduplicated and in-sequence transport of SS7 messages between communication partners.

  • MVNA - Mobile Virtual Network Aggegrator

    Mobile Virtual Network Aggregator (MVNA) is a provider that buys access to an MNO’s network and then sells it to MVNOs. An MVNA doesn’t have direct clients because they sell access to MVNOs instead. Many MNOs use MVNAs because it’s a strategic choice to just sell to one company. See also MVNE, MVNA and MVNO differences explained in a simple way

  • MVNE - Mobile Virtual Network Enabler

    Mobile Virtual Network Enabler (MVNE) is a company that provides network infrastructure and related services, such as provisioning, administration and OSS/BSS, to enable mobile virtual network operators (MVNOs) to offer services to their own customers. The MVNE does not have a relationship with customers.See also MVNE, MVNA and MVNO differences explained in a simple way

  • MVNO - Mobile Virtual Network Operator

    Mobile Virtual Network Operator (MVNO) is a company that does not own a mobile spectrum license but sells mobile services under its brand name using the network of a licensed mobile operator. See also MVNE, MVNA and MVNO differences explained in a simple way and Different types of MVNOs

  • N3IWF - Non-3GPP Interworking Function

    Non-3GPP Interworking Function (N3IWF) is responsible for interworking between untrusted non-3GPP networks and the 5G Core.

  • NAF - Network Application Function

    Network Application Function (NAF) identifies a Service-based Interface for the Application Function

  • NB-IOT - Narrowband IoT

    Narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) is a wireless internet of things (IoT) protocol that uses low-power wide area network (LPWAN) technology. It was developed by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) for cellular wireless communication to enable a wide range of new NB-IoT devices and services.

  • NEF - Network Exposure Function

    Network Exposure Function Network (NEF) does the slice-Specific Authentication and Authorization Function

  • NF - Network Function

    Network Function (NF) is a logical node within the network that has well-defined external interfaces and well-defined functional behavior

  • NFC - Near field communication

    Near field communication (NFC) allows devices to communicate wirelessly with other adjacent systems over a distance of 4cm or less.

  • NM - Neural Network

    Neural Network (NM) is an algorithm for modelling complicated interactions between inputs and outputs.

  • NRF - Network Repository Function

    Network Repository Function (NRF) allows every network function to discover the services offered by other network functions

  • NSACF - Network Slice Access Control Function

    Network Slice Access Control Function (NSACF) monitors and controls the number of registered UEs per network slice and/or the number of PDU Sessions per network slice for the network slices that are subject to Network Slice Admission Control (NSAC).

  • NSS - Network Switching Subsystem

    Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) is the component of a GSM system that carries out call switching and mobility management functions for mobile phones roaming on the network of base stations.

  • NSSAAF - Network Slice-Specific Authentication and Authorization Function

    Network Slice-Specific Authentication and Authorization Function (NSSAAF) provides slice-specific authentication and authorization for a given UE. The NSSAAF acts as a NF Service Producer, while the AMF is the NF Service Consumer

  • NSSF - Network Slice Selection Function

    Network Slice Selection Function (NSSF) redirects traffic to a network slice

  • NSWOF - Non-Seamless WLAN Offload Function

    Non-Seamless WLAN Offload Function (NSWOF) interfaces to the WLAN access network using the SWA interface and interfaces to the AUSF using the Nausf Service Based Interface (SBI) to support WLAN connection using 5G credentials without 5GS registration

  • NWDAF - Network Data Analytics Function

    Network Data Analytics Function (NWDAF) is responsible for providing network analysis information upon request from network functions.

  • OCF - Online Charging Function

    Online Charging Function (OCF) forms an integral part of the online charging system, determining whether or not, from a billing perspective, the customer is allowed to access network resources or services.

  • OCS - Online Charging System

    Online Charging System (OCS) is a system allowing a communications service provider to charge their customers, in real time, based on service usage (prepaid). The OCS can be thought of as the heart of a telecommunication network architecture; all the transactions within the system are linked with and processed by the OCS, such as the subscriber’s account balance and charging transactions. The OCS interacts with a number of network nodes e.g. MSC, SGSN, PCEF, all of which can potentially provide billing related data.

  • OFCS - OFfline Charging System

    Offline Charging System (OFCS) is the main element of a service provider’s offline (postpaid) billing architecture. In this capacity, the OFCS interacts with a number of network nodes e.g. MSC, SGSN, CSCF, all of which can potentially provide billing related data.

  • OSS - Operations Support Systems

    Operational Support System (OSS) is a set of programs that helps a communications service provider monitor, control, analyze and manage a telephone or computer network. See What is an Operational Support System (OSS)

  • OTA - Over The Air Services

    Over The Air Services (OTA) is a method for remotely upgrading internet-connected equipment with new configurations.

  • PAAS - Platform as a service

    Platform as a service (PaaS) is a cloud computing approach in which a third-party supplier provides customers with hardware and software capabilities through the internet.

  • PAN - Personal Area Network

    Personal Area Network (PAN) is a personal area network is a computer network for connecting electronic devices within an individual person’s environment.

  • PCC - Policy and Charging Control

    Policy and Charging Control (PCC) is a very generic term and in a network there are many different policies that could be implemented, for example, policies related to security, mobility, use of access technologies etc. Two diverse types of PCC rules exist: Dynamic rules and Predefined rules. Dynamic PCC rules are provisioned by the Policy Control Function (PCF) to the Session Management Function (SMF). In contrast, predefined PCC rules are configured into the SMF, and only referenced by the PCF

  • PCEF - Policy and Charging Enforcement Function

    Policy and Charging Enforcement Function (PCEF) is a Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) device responsible for the enforcement of rules which have been configured statically or supplied to the PCEF dynamically from the Policy and Charging Rules Function (PCRF). The PCEF sits on the user plane, ensure that subscriber traffic flows are treated in accordance with network policy e.g. implementing Quality of Serivce, throttling traffic, blocking traffic, etc. Crucially, the PCEF will ensure that services are billed accordingly.

  • PCF - Policy Control Function

    Policy Control Function (PCF) is related to the 3GPP 5G Architecture. This function supports the unified policy framework that governs network behaviour. In so doing, it provides policy rules to control plane function(s) to enforce them.

  • PCF - Policy Control Function

    Policy Control Function (PCF) governs the network behavior by supporting a unified policy framework. Also, provides policy rules to Control Plane functions.

  • PCRF - Policy and Charging Rules Function

    Policy and Charging Rules Function (PCRF) is the software node designated in real-time to determine policy rules in a multimedia network. Using inputs from other network nodes, the PCRF will formulate rules which control how traffic flows (required QoS, restrictions, throttling, blocking, billing, etc) over the network down to individual subscriber granularity.

  • PDN - Packet Data Network

    Packet Data Network (PDN) is connection which is established between the device and the network to allow the device to access data services. When the device tries to establish a PDN connection, the network may reject the request for various reasons. PDN is a generic description for a network that provides data services. Packet switching is a mode of data transmission in which a message is broken into a number of parts that are sent independently, over whatever route is optimum for each packet, and reassembled at the destination.

  • PGW - Packet Network Data Gateway

    Packet Network Data Gateway (PGW) is the boundary between the EPC and the external packet network (Internet). PGW is responsible for assigning IP addresses to terminals, filtering / inspecting packets, supporting selected functionalities in the network and charging for their use. The PGW acts as the interface between the LTE network and other packet data networks, such as the Internet or SIP-based IMS networks.

  • PHY - Phyiscal Layer

    The physical layer (also known as layer 1) handles bit-level transmission between devices and allows for electrical or mechanical interfaces to connect to the physical media for synchronized communication.

  • PIR - Passive Infra-Red Detector

    Passive Infra-Red Detector (PIR) is infrared which is used to detect movement.

  • PLC - Programmable Logic controller

    Used to automate industrial control systems with real-time control needs.

  • POC - Proof of Concept

    Proof of Concept (POC), also known as a proof of prin­ciple, is the implementation of a certain approach or idea in order to establish its practicality, or a demonstration in principle with the goal of demon­strating that a particular notion or theory has practical potential.

  • PoE - Power over Ethernet

    Power over Ethernet (PoE) is a way to permit electrical current for each device’s functioning to be transmitted through data cables.

  • POS - Point of Sales

    Point of Sales (POS) means the place where a transaction takes place between a customer and a merchant.

  • POV - Proof of Value

    Proof of value (POV) is a mix of a Proof of Concept (POC) and communication of a solution’s predicted commercial value.

  • PoWiFi - Power over WiFi

    Power over WiFi (PoWiFi) is a continuous stream of low power signals can be harvested from inactive WiFi hotspots.

  • PSA - PDU Session Anchor

    PDU Session Anchor (PSA) the user plane function that terminates the N6 interface of a PDU session within a 5G core network.

  • PSTN - Public Switched Telephone Network

    Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), is the world’s collection of interconnected voice-oriented public telephone networks. PSTN is the traditional circuit-switched telephone network. PSTN comprises all the switched telephone networks around the world that are operated by local, national or international carriers.

  • QOS - Quality of Service

    Quality of Service (QoS) regulates network capabilities and resources in order to offer a dependable foundation for IoT con­nection. QoS may regulate delays, bandwidth, and packet loss by categorizing traffic and setting channel restrictions in order to provide secure and predictable services.

  • RAN - Radio Access Network

    Radio Access Network (RAN) is using radio technology and provides access to the core network.

  • RBT - Ring Back Tones

    RingBack Tone (RBT) is a signaling tone (audio indication) heard by the calling party (caller) while waiting for their call to be answered by the called destination. The tone is typically a repeated cadence similar to a traditional power ringing signal (ringtone), but is usually not played synchronously. With modern cell phone and smartphone technology ringing tone can be customized and even used for advertising.

  • REST - REpresentational State Transfer

    REpresentational State Transfer (REST) architecture is perhaps the most popular approach to building APIs. REST uses a client/server approach that separates front and back ends of the API and provides considerable flexibility in development and implementation. REST is stateless, which means the API stores no data or status between requests. REST supports caching, which stores responses for slow or non-time-sensitive APIs. REST APIs, usually termed RESTful APIs, also can communicate directly or operate through intermediate systems such as API gateways and load balancers.

  • RFID - Radio Frequency Identification

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a method of identifying items that employs electromagnetic coupling and radio frequency.

  • ROI - Return on investment

    Return on investment (ROI) is a performance metric used to assess the effective­ness of an investment.

  • RPC - Remote Procedural Call

    Remote Procedural Call (RPC) protocol is a simple means to send multiple parameters and receive results. This is the most simple API.

  • RSSI - Received Signal Strength Indicator

    Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) is a measurement of how well a signal from an access point or router can be heard by your device.

  • RTOS - Real Time Operating System

    Real Time Operating System (RTOS) is an operating system for real-time applications that processes data and events that have critically defined time constraints.

  • SAAS - Software As a Service

    Software As a Service (SaaS) is a software distribution paradigm in which a cloud provider hosts programs and makes them available to end customers through the internet and charges on a subscription basis.

  • SBC - Session Border Controller

    Session Border Controller (SBC) is a dedicated hardware device or software application that governs the manner in which phone calls are initiated, conducted and terminated on a voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) network

  • SCADA - Supervisory Control and Data

    Supervisory Control and Data (SCADA) is a factory monitoring and control hardware and software system.

  • SCCP - Signalling Connection Control Part

    Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP) is a network layer protocol that provides extended routing, flow control, segmentation, connection-orientation, and error correction facilities in Signaling System 7 telecommunications networks. SCCP relies on the services of MTP for basic routing and error detection. One of its overall objectives is to provide the means for establishing the logical signaling connections within the SS7 network and for transferring the signaling data units with the use of the logical signaling connections.

  • SCP - Service Control Point

    Service Control Point (SCP) is a standard component of the Intelligent Network (IN) telephone system which is used to control the service. The Service Control Point (SCP) contains the active database of customer records. This database is actively queried from either the Service Switching Points (SSPs) or Service Platform Trigger Points (STPs) within the network to seek and obtain service-completion information. The SCP queries the Service Data Point (SDP) which holds the actual database and directory.

  • SCP - Service Communication Proxy

    Service Communication Proxy (SCP) is a new network function enabling dynamic scaling and management of communication and services in the 5G network. The SCP has a role like the Diameter Signaling Controller (DSC) in 4G.

  • SDF - Service Data Function (SDF)

    Service Data Function (SDF) or Service Data Point (SDP) is a database that contains additional subscriber data, or other data required to process a call. For example, the subscriber’s remaining prepaid credit may be stored in the SDF to be queried in real-time during the call.

  • SDK - Software Development Kit

    Software Development Kit (SDK) is a set of libraries, tools, and procedures that enable users to construct software applications

  • SDP - Service Data Point

    Service Data Point (SDP) or Service Data Function (SDF) is a database that contains additional subscriber data, or other data required to process a call. For example, the subscriber’s remaining prepaid credit may be stored in the SDP to be queried in real-time during the call.

  • SEPP - Security Edge Protection Proxy

    Security Edge Protection Proxy (SEPP) protects control plane traffic that is exchanged between different 5G operator networks.

  • SGSN - Serving GPRS Support Node

    Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) is a main component of the GPRS network, which handles all packet switched data within the network, e.g. the mobility management and authentication of the users. It works in tandem with the Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN). The SGSN performs the same functions as the Mobile Switching Center (MSC) for voice traffic.

  • SGW - Signaling Gateway

    Signaling Gateway (SGW) is a network component used for sending signaling messages between common channel signaling nodes, which communicate with the help of different transports and protocols. It is a translation device that is used to pass call control information between dissimilar networks such as legacy SS7 (signaling system 7) networks and IP-based networks.

  • SGW (LTE) - Serving Gateway

    Serving Gateway (SGW) The Serving Gateway is taking care of the routing and forwarding of user data packets. It is also responsible for inter-eNB handovers in the U-plane and provides mobility between LTE and other types of networks, such as between 2G/3G and P-GW.

  • SIM - Subscriber Identity Module

    Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) is a physical smartcard that is necessary to make use of a mobile phone. The SIM is the key used to identify and authenticate the mobile subscriber. There are 3 different formats: mini, micro and nano.

  • SIP - Session Initiated Protocol

    Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a signaling protocol that enables the Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP) by defining the messages sent between endpoints and managing the actual elements of a call.

  • SMF - Session Management Function

    Session Management Function (SMF) is the control function that manages the user sessions including establishment, modification and release of sessions, and it can allocate IP addresses for IP PDU sessions.

  • SMF - Session Management Function

    Session Management Function (SMF) handles management of UE sessions.

  • SMPP - Short Message Peer to Peer Protocol

    Short Message Peer to Peer Protocol (SMPP) is a set of rules that allows devices and software programs to send and receive text messag­es over the internet.

  • SMS - Short Message Service

    Short Message Service (SMS), commonly referred to as “text messaging,” is a service for sending short messages of up to 160 characters (224 character limit if using a 5-bit mode) to mobile devices, including cellular phones and smartphones. An SMS is generally sent from one mobile device to another over the cellular network. SMS is a text-only standard first formalized in 1985 in the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) standards.

  • SMSC - Short Message Service Center

    Short Message Service Center (SMSC) is a network element in the mobile telephone network. It is responsible for receiving, storing, routing and forwarding SMS messages from mobile handsets, applications or other devices.

  • SMSF - Short Message Service Function

    Short Message Service Function (SMSF) supports the transfer of SMS over NAS.

  • SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

    Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a common language used to send email. It’s a universal set of rules that allow servers and email clients to communicate via the internet. Think of SMTP as the language your computer uses to tell a server where an email goes, what’s in the email, what’s attached, and more.

  • SNMP - Simple Network Management Protocol

    Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an internet standard protocol used to monitor (alarming) and manage network devices connected over an IP. SNMP is used for communication between routers, switches, firewalls, load balancers, servers, CCTV cameras, and wireless devices. It allows devices to communicate even if the devices are different hardware and run different software.

  • SNR - Signal to Noise Ratio

    Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) is the relative intensity of an electrical or other desired signal to background noise.

  • SOAP - Simple Object Access Protocol

    Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) is a messaging standard defined by the World Wide Web Consortium and broadly used to create web APIs, usually with XML. SOAP supports a wide range of communication protocols found across the internet, such as HTTP, SMTP and TCP/IP. SOAP is also extensible and style-independent, which enables developers to write SOAP APIs in varied ways and easily add features and functionality. The SOAP approach defines how the SOAP message is processed, the features and modules included, the communication protocol(s) supported and the construction of SOAP messages.

  • SoC - System on Chip

    System on Chip (SoC) is an integrated chip made up of electrical circuits from several components.

  • SPI - Stateful Packet Inspection

    Stateful Packet Inspection (SPI) is a methodology that examines the TCP or UDP headers, which are enclosed within the IP packet. Stateful packet inspection is also known as shallow packet inspection.

  • SRF - Specialized Resource Function

    Specialized Resource Function (SRF) is a node which can connect to both the SSP and the SCP and deliver special resources into the call, mostly related to voice communication, for example to play voice announcements or collect DTMF tones from the user.

  • SS7 - Signaling System 7

    Signaling System 7 (SS7) is an international telecommunication protocol standard that defines how the network elements in a public switched telephone network (PSTN) exchange information and control signals.

  • SSP - Service Switching Points

    Service Switching Point (SSP) is an end-point used by a telecommunications system such as telephone switches and performs call processing on calls that start, tandem or end at that site. SSPs can be connected to one another using Signaling System No.7 (SS7) links. SSPs may produce or receive SS7 messages for transferring call-related information. They may also send queries to service control points (SCPs) in order to discover the methods for processing a service request or call.

  • STP - Signal Transfer Point

    Signal Transfer Point (STP) is a node in an SS7 network that routes signaling messages based on their destination point code in the SS7 network. It works as a router that relays SS7 messages between signaling end-points (SEPs) and other signaling transfer points (STPs).

  • TCP - Transmission Control Protocol

    Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), is a communications standard for delivering data and messages through networks. TCP is a basic standard that defines the rules of the internet and is a common protocol used to deliver data in digital network

  • TCP/IP - Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

    Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is a suite of communication protocols used to interconnect network devices on the internet.

  • TLS - Trusted Layer Security

    Transport Layer Security (TLS) is an internet technolo­gy that encrypts email for privacy and safe delivery.

  • TNGF - TNF Trusted Non-3GPP Gateway Function

    Trusted Non-3GPP Gateway Function (TNGF) enables the UE to connect to the 5G Core over WLAN access technology.

  • ToF - Time of Flight

    Time of Flight (ToF) is the measurement of time taken by a signal to travel through a medium. This technology can be used for positioning by measuring the time taken for signal to travel between various anchor points.

  • TPM - Trusted Platform Module Chip

    TPM (Trusted Platform Module) technology is intend­ed to provide hardware-based security functionalities. A TPM chip is a safe crypto-processor that performs cryptographic operations. The chip incorporates numerous physical security methods to prevent tam­pering, and malicious software cannot interfere with the TPM’s security operations.

  • TSCTSF - Time Sensitive Communication Time Synchronization Function

    Time Sensitive Communication Time Synchronization Function (TSCTSF) controls the DS-TT(s) and NW-TT for the (g)PTP based time synchronization service. In addition, TSCTSF supports TSC assistance container related functionalities

  • TSN AF - Time-Sensitive Networking Application Function

    Time-Sensitive Networking Application Function (TSN AF) stores the binding relationship between a port on UE/DS-TT side and a PDU Session during reporting of 5GS TSN bridge information. The TSN AF also stores the information about ports on the UPF/NW-TT side.

  • TWIF - Trusted WLAN Interworking Function

    Trusted WLAN Interworking Function (TWIF) is a new 5G function for interoperability with legacy devices. Some devices may support 5G SIM authentication but do not support 5G NAS signaling over trusted Wi-Fi access. TWIF contains the NAS protocol stack and exchanges NAS messages with the AMF on behalf of these types of devices.

  • UCMF - UE radio Capability Management Function

    UE radio Capability Management Function (UCMF) allows NF service consumers to create, update and delete UCMF dictionary entries for Manufacturer-assigned UE Radio Capability IDs.

  • UDM - Unified Data Management

    Unified Data Management (UDM) performs parts of the 4G HSS function.

  • UDP - User Datagram Protocol

    User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a communications protocol that is primarily used to establish low-latency and loss-tolerating connections between applications on the internet. UDP speeds up transmissions by enabling the transfer of data before an agreement is provided by the receiving party.

  • UDR - Usage Detail Record

    Usage Detail Record (UDR) is a record with captured information on calls made on telephone systems, including who made the call (name and number), who was called (name if available, and number), the date and time the call was made, the duration of the call, and typically dozens of usage and diagnostic information elements. they are also called Call Detail Record (CDR). They are also used for the charging, rating and billing and are sometimes called Charging Date Record.

  • UDR - Unified Data Repository

    Unified Data Repository (UDR) is a converged repository of subscriber information that can be used to service a number of network functions.

  • UDSF - Unstructured Data Storage Function

    Unstructured Data Storage Function (UDSF) is part of the UDM entity. Network Functions (NFs) can store/retrieve “unstructured” data from an Unstructured Data Storage Function (UDSF).

  • UE - User Equipment

    User Equipment (UE) is any device used directly by an end-user to communicate (a handheld phone, laptop etc.).

  • UMTS - Universal Mobile Telecommunications Framework

    Universal Mobile Telecommunications Framework (UMTS), is the 3G successor to the GSM family of measures counting GPRS and EDGE. 3G UMTS employments a completely diverse radio interface based around the utilize of Coordinate Grouping Spread Range as CDMA or Code Division Multiple Access. Although 3G UMTS employments a completely distinctive radio get to standard, the center arrange is the same as that utilized for GPRS and EDGE to carry partitioned circuit exchanged voice and bundle data.

  • UPF - User Plane Function

    User Plane Function UPF) is a combination of the data plane parts of the SGW and PGW in 4G.

  • USSD - Unstructured Supplementary Service Data

    Unstructured Supplementary Service Data (USSD) is a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) protocol that is used to send text messages. USSD is similar to Short Message Service (SMS).

  • UWB - Ultra-wide band

    Ultra-wide band (UWB) generates brief, narrow pulses and might be an appealing alternative for asset tracking. Using very low energy for short-range high-bandwidth application

  • VAS - Value Added Services

    Value Added Service (VAS) is a term used in telecommunications to describe non-core features. This has traditionally referred to non-voice functions such as video, data and so on. However, as telecommunications services incorporate many of these functions now as standard, the term “value-added service” evolves to take on new meaning.

  • VNO - Virtual Network Operator

    Virtual Network Operator (VNO) is a company that does not own a mobile spectrum license but sells mobile services under its brand name using the network of a licensed mobile operator.

  • Voip - Voice over Internet Protocol

    Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), is a technology that allows you to make voice calls using a broadband Internet connection instead of a regular (or analog) phone line.

  • VoLTE - Voice over Long Term Evolution

    Voice over Long Term Evolution (VoLTE) it is a digital packet voice service delivered over IP via an LTE access network. Voice calls over LTE are recognised as the industry-agreed progression of voice services across mobile networks, deploying LTE radio access technology.

  • vPBX - virtual Private Branch Exchange

    virtual Private Branch Exchange (VPBX) is a business phone system that provides call routing, follow-me calling, voice mail, fax and automatic call distributor queues delivered over the public-switched telephone system.

  • vXML - Voice eXtensible Markup Language

    Voice eXtensible Markup Language (vXML) is a standard developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) for creating interactive voice dialogues. This is normally used in an IVR, Voicemail or any other Voice related solution. The VXML code is interpreted by the voice browser, which, in turn, interacts with the user through PSTN. Simply put, VXML is an XML extension that enables connectivity to the internet via telephones and other voice-based devices, essentially governing all voice interactions between a machine system and the user

  • W-AGT - Wireline Access Gateway Function

    Wireline Access Gateway Function (W-AGT) enables wireline access to the 5G Core.

  • WAN - Wide Area Network

    Wide Area Network (WAN) is a broadband network that provides communication over larger distances. It requires high bandwidth and low latency. AMI backhaul, CCTV, WiFi and renewable resource integration are all examples of utility use cases for WAN.

  • WLAN - Wide Area Local Network

    Wide Area Local Network (WLAN) is a local Wi-Fi Network connected to the internet.

  • XML - eXtensible Markup Language

    eXtensible Markup Language (XML) lets you define and store data in a shareable manner. XML supports information exchange between computer systems such as websites, databases, and third-party applications.